Connect with us

Tech

What is Quantum Computer?

Published

on

Quantum Computer

To Know More about Quantum Computer, Read the Given Below Article.

For most of our history, human technology consisted of our brains, fire, and sharp sticks. While fire and sharp sticks became power plants and nuclear weapons, the biggest upgrade has happened to our brains. Since the 1960’s, the power of our brain machines has kept growing exponentially, allowing computers to get smaller and more powerful at the same time. But this process is about to meet its physical limits.

Computer parts are approaching the size of an atom. To understand why this is a problem, we have to clear up some basics.

A computer is made up of very simple components doing very simple things. 

Representing data, the means of processing it, and control mechanisms. Computer chips contain modules, which contain logic gates, which contain transistors.

A transistor is the simplest form of a data processor in computers, basically, a switch that can either block or open the way for information coming through. This information is made up of bits which can be set to either 0 or 1. Combinations of several bits are used to represent more complex information. Transistors are combined to create logic gates which still do very simple stuff.

For example, an AND Gate sends an output of 1 if all of its inputs are 1, and an output of 0 otherwise. Combinations of logic gates finally form meaningful modules, say, for adding two numbers. Once you can add, you can also multiply, and once you can multiply, you can basically do anything. Since all basic operations are literally simpler than first-grade math, you can imagine a computer as a group of 7-year-olds answering really basic math questions. 

A large enough bunch of them could compute anything from astrophysics to Zelda. However, with parts getting tinier and tinier, quantum physics are making things tricky. In a nutshell, a transistor is just an electric switch. Electricity is electrons moving from one place to another. So, a switch is a passage that can block electrons from moving in one direction.

Today, a typical scale for transistors is 14 nanometers, which is about 8 times less than the HIV virus’ diameter, and 500 times smaller than a red blood cell. As transistors are shrinking to the size of only a few atoms, electrons may just transfer themselves to the other side of a blocked passage via a process called Quantum Tunneling.

In the quantum realm, physics works quite differently from the predictable ways we’re used to,

and traditional computers just stop making sense. We are approaching a real physical barrier to our technological progress. To solve this problem, scientists are trying to use these unusual quantum properties to their advantage by building quantum computers. In normal computers, bits are the smallest unit of information.

Quantum computers use qubits which can also be set to one of two values. A qubit can be any two-level quantum system, such as a spin and a magnetic field, or a single photon. 0 and 1 are this system’s possible states, like the photons horizontal or vertical polarization. In the quantum world, the qubit doesn’t have to be just one of those, it can be in any proportions of both states at once. This is called superposition. But as soon as you test its value, say, by sending the photon through a filter, it has to decide to be either vertically or horizontally polarized. So as long as it’s unobserved, the qubit is in a superposition of probabilities for 0 and 1, and you can’t predict which it’ll be. But the instant you measure it, it collapses into one of the definite states.

Superposition is a game changer. Four classical bits can be in one of two to the power of four different configurations at a time. That’s 16 possible combinations, out of which you can use just one. Four qubits in superposition, however, can be in all of those 16 combinations at once. This number grows exponentially with each extra qubit. Twenty of them can already store a million values in parallel. A really weird and unintuitive property qubits can have is Entanglement, a close connection that makes each of the qubits react to a change in the other’s state instantaneously, no matter how far they are apart. This means when measuring just one entangled qubit, you can directly deduce properties of its partners without having to look. 

Qubit Manipulation is a mind bender as well. A normal Logic gate gets a simple set of inputs and produces one definite output. A quantum gate manipulates an input of superpositions, rotates probabilities, and produces another superposition as its output. So a quantum computer sets up some qubits, applies quantum gates to entangle them and manipulate probabilities, then finally measures the outcome, collapsing superpositions to an actual sequence of 0s and 1s. What this means is that you get the entire lot of calculations that are possible with your setup, all done at the same time.

Ultimately, you can only measure one of the results and it’ll only probably be the one you want so you may have to double check and try again. But by cleverly exploiting superposition and entanglement, this can be exponentially more efficient than would ever be possible on a normal computer. So, while quantum computers will probably not replace our home computers, in some areas, they are vastly superior. One of them is database searching. To find something in a database, a normal computer may have to test every single one of its entries. 

Quantum computers algorithms need only the square root of that time, which for large databases, is a huge difference. The most famous use of quantum computers is ruining IT security. Right now, your browsing, email, and banking data are being kept secure by an encryption system in which you give everyone a public key to encode messages only you can decode. The problem is that this public key can actually be used to calculate your secret private key. Luckily, doing the necessary math on any normal computer would literally take years of trial and error. But a quantum computer with exponential speed-up could do it in a breeze. Another really exciting new use is simulations.

Simulations of the quantum world are very intense on resources, and even for bigger structures, such as molecules, they often lack accuracy. So why not simulate quantum physics with actual quantum physics? Quantum simulations could provide new insights on proteins that might revolutionize medicine. Right now, we don’t know if quantum computers will be just a specialized tool or a big revolution for humanity. We have no idea where the limits of technology are, and there’s only one way to find out.

To Read more in Detail: Click Here

So, guys, this was all about the Quantum Computers. Hope you enjoyed. Comment your suggestion.

Tech

What is Flipkart?

Published

on

What is Flipkart?

Flipkart is India’s Amazon. It’s the country’s largest online retailer. In 2018 retail giant Walmart announced its intention to acquire a controlling stake in the company for $16 billion, making this the largest e-commerce acquisition, ever.

Flipkart was founded here in Bangalore in 2007 by Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal, two Indian software engineers, that happen to share the same surname. They both worked for Amazon in the U.S. before returning to India to start their company.

Like Amazon, Flipkart began as an online bookstore. In its first full year of business, it delivered nearly three and half thousand shipments of books. Now its website has 10 million page visits a day and sells more than 80 different categories of goods, which includes everything from food processors to yoga mats.

This expansion has been supported by the company’s own digital ecosystem. In 2009 it founded Ekart, its in-house supply chain arm.

Ekart is now India’s largest logistics company delivering 10 million shipments a month for Flipkart, as well as independent brands and sellers. It also owns PhonePe, an app the company acquired in 2016, which helps facilitate electronic payments throughout the country. In addition, Flipkart’s purchase of two of India’s leading online fashion retailers, Myntra and Jabong ensured the company remained the leading player in India’s online retail industry.

Flipkart’s strong position in the market attracted $1.4 billion of investment in 2017 from the Indian e-commerce market as a whole is set to quadruple to $200 billion in the next eight years, and by 2034 it’s predicted to surpass the U.S. as the second largest e-commerce market in the world.

The predicted growth in e-commerce has increased competition between the big online retailers. Amazon has been taking on Flipkart in its own backyard. Both have been offering massive sales and discounts pegged to Indian festivals as they battle it out for more customers.

While Amazon’s size and profitable cloud computing service allows it to absorb these costs, Flipkart has suffered losses in its struggle to compete. However, the Flipkart Group as a whole still has the largest share of the market and remains the e-commerce leader in India.

Walmart’s online sales, however, account for just a little more than three and a half percent of its business in the U.S. Acquiring Flipkart gives them a considerable foothold in the sector. Yet when news of the deal broke, the American retailer’s shares tumbled four percent with investors concerned that the company had a long way to go before becoming profitable. The acquisition of a loss-making business also cut Walmart’s profits at the end of 2018 and its earnings outlook for 2019.

Walmart Acquiring Flipkart

Walmart Acquiring Flipkart | Image Courtesy: YourStory

The company also warned that e-commerce growth would be slower next year. For Flipkart, Walmart’s investment is seen by many as a major boost to the company’s logistical operations. It will also help it move into new areas like online groceries. Along with a strong food supply chain, Walmart’s financial support will also help Flipkart keep prices low in its battle with Amazon.

Several key investors have exited the company, including co-founder Sachin Bansal, and they leave with hefty profits. Venture capital firms Accel and Tiger Global invested when Flipkart was valued at just $50 million. They have now pocketed more than 400 times what they invested and still retain some shares.

Softbank is also a big beneficiary of the deal. Its Vision Fund invested $2.5 billion in 2017 and in just over 12 months the Japanese company sold its 20% stake for $4 billion.

Co-founder Binny Bansal had planned to stay on as the company’s chief executive but resigned after an internal investigation into serious personal misconduct following an accusation of sexual assault. He still owns 4.2% of the company and remains a director on the board. Amid the controversy Walmart increased its stake in the $20 billion company from 77 percent to 81.3 percent, offering another sign of its support of an online retail market that is still small by global standards.

The value and sale of Flipkart to a major corporation like Walmart will likely encourage investors to see India’s e-commerce market as an area of growth. Already the Indian startup Ola is competing fiercely with Uber in the taxi aggregation market and both have Softbank as a major shareholder.

As the world’s major tech companies focus more of their attention on India, Flipkart may be the first of many start-up success stories emerging from the growing e-commerce space.

So, do you think Flipkart has a chance against Amazon? Comment below to let us know.

Source: CNBC International
Continue Reading

Business

Why Windows Phone Failed

Published

on

Why Widows Phone failed
 Windows Phone: a product with so much potential that had everything going for it, and yet one that failed spectacularly. Despite the billions of dollars and the priceless connections of Microsoft, the Windows Phone never took off and would go down in history as one of Microsoft’s most expensive mistakes.
We’re gonna look at the reasons behind its failure and the actions Microsoft could’ve taken to possibly prevent it.
When Steve Jobs announced the iPhone in 2007 he took the smartphone world by storm. Up until then, smartphones had a big problem: they had small screens with interfaces that were hard to navigate, and the reason for that was because half of the phone was occupied by a keyboard with tiny buttons you could hardly press with any precision at all.
Apple unvield iPhone in 2007

Apple unveiled iPhone in 2007

What Steve Jobs showed to his ecstatic audience was a game changer, but it wasn’t just Apple fans there were watching. The engineers at Google, which for the past two years had been building a smartphone of their own, had to scrap their entire project and to start over with a touchscreen design. Their final product, Android, would arrive more than a year later, at which point the iPhone had taken the smartphone crown.
The iPhone’s model was built on exclusivity: it was entirely produced by Apple to establish maximal control over the user experience and the quality of the product, which allowed Apple to charge a premium for their phones.
To succeed Android would have to adopt a different strategy: instead of going for exclusivity, Google tried to be everyone’s friend, partnering up with as many phone manufacturers as possible with the selling point of their phones being the fact that they were cheap, yet functional.
For a time, the smartphone world was in balance, with Android and the iPhone occupying very distinct segments of
the market. And yet, this balance would soon be disturbed by another tech giant, Microsoft.
Now, out of the three companies, it was actually Microsoft that had the most experience with mobile devices.
Back in 1996, Bill Gates unveiled what he called the handheld PC, which was really more of a tiny laptop. The operating system it ran was known as Windows CE, which was basically Windows 3 modified to function on the lowest specifications possible.
Over the next decade, Microsoft would add features and develop this product line extensively, making another 6 full releases. Between 2006 and 2008 Microsoft’s mobile devices claimed a 15% market share, greater than any of their competitors except Symbian by Nokia.
But this success is exactly what blinded Microsoft to threat of the iPhone.
When Steve Ballmer, the CEO of Microsoft at the time was asked about the iPhone his reaction, he was like that iPhones don’t have keyboards which will not make them good email machine. Also said that $500 for iPhone is not customer friendly.
When he was asked “How do you compete with iPhone?”, he replied ” Right now we’re selling millions and millions and millions of phones a year. Apple is selling zero phones a year.”
We can clearly see the stark difference between the two men: the reporter very clearly sees the innovations
of the iPhone as a threat to the old smartphone establishment, but Microsoft’s CEO can barely look past the sales numbers. And just in case you’re thinking he’s an exception, the CEOs of Blackberry and Palm were equally skeptical of the new iPhone.
It took Microsoft a full year of declining market share to finally realize that something had to be done. Unlike Microsoft, Blackberry’s sales were still increasing, which gave them a sense of confidence they never recovered from.
Now, as they say, it’s better late than never and when Microsoft finally got around to it, their development was actually pretty fast.
Microsoft began developing a touchscreen-based mobile device in late 2008 and it took them only two years to get it ready for market. What Steve Ballmer unveiled was indeed a very unique product whose advancement of smartphone design isn’t really widely recognized, but it should be. At a time when the iPhone and Android were stuck with static icons, the Windows Phone gave you tiles with live information.

Microsoft unveiled first Windows phone in 2010 at MWC

Overall, critics had much to praise: in terms of design the Windows Phone user experience was right up there next to Apple and because Microsoft had very strict requirements for the hardware used by phone manufacturers, all of the early Windows Phones were very powerful machines for their time. And yet, Microsoft ran into a big problem very early on.
Microsoft was trying to do something very difficult: it was emulating Apple in trying to establish strict control over the user experience and hardware, but unlike Apple, it wasn’t actually making its own phones. This approach made the Windows Phone a very refined product, but the degree of control Microsoft wanted to be made working with them much more difficult for phone manufacturers compared to working with Android.
Unsurprisingly, most phone manufacturers decided to partner up with Google, which left Microsoft in a very bad position: it had a great product and no one to make it. The only saving grace for Microsoft was a lucky connection: when Nokia replaced their CEO in September 2010, the new guy, Stephen Elop, was a former Microsoft executive and the first item on his agenda was to try to restore Nokia’s declining market share by abandoning Symbian and pivoting towards Windows Phone.
Now, you can tell that this was a very premeditated plan because of this massive transition, during which Nokia completely changed their product offerings, happened in the span of a single year. Nokia started selling their first Windows Phone in November 2011 and I can tell you right away that this was possible thanks to the billions of dollars Microsoft poured into Nokia as “platform support payments”.
Nokia was supposedly paying Microsoft a licensing fee, but in reality, it was actually getting $250 million back from Microsoft every quarter, which more than made up for their expenses. Of course, the other phone manufacturers knew that this was happening, which pushed them even farther away from Microsoft.
After all, why would they fund their own development and pay a licensing fee to Microsoft, when Nokia was getting it all for free?
Effectively, Microsoft had gone all in with Nokia and there was no going back. But sadly for Microsoft, it was far too late. By the time Microsoft solved its production issue, four years after the introduction of the iPhone, it had fallen to a 2% market share. Nobody was developing applications for the Windows Phone and why would they, considering that Android and iOS were clearly the winners here.
For its first three years, the Windows Phone App Store was empty: it didn’t have Instagram, it didn’t have YouTube, it barely had anything. By 2013 the stock price of Nokia had fallen by 75% at which point angry shareholders were threatening to just fire Stephen Elop and get rid of Microsoft altogether.
In the end, that didn’t happen, Microsoft instead just purchased Nokia’s mobile phone division for $7.2 billion in 2014. Here’s the funny thing though: the very next year Microsoft wrote off their investment for $7.6 billion, and then to top things off they fired almost 8,000 employees. Microsoft kept Windows Phone on life support until October 2017, but it was clearly dead a long time before that.
And yet, it’s easy to imagine the different path Windows Phone could’ve taken had it only not been as greedy with its original philosophy. Had Microsoft been willing to compromise on its control over production, it would’ve
easily convinced the big manufacturers to use Windows Phone instead of Android.
After all back then Google had practically no ecosystem to speak of, while Microsoft had been a software titan for decades.
This was how the Windows Phone ran the path for its downfall.
Stay tuned with us by turning on the notifications by pressing the bell at the lower left corner of your screen.
Continue Reading

Tech

WhatsApp CEO to visit India again in October end for Fake News issues

Published

on

WhatsApp Fake news @newsbooklet

WhatsApp CEO Chris Daniels has planned to make his second trip to India in three months to help the Government Officials of India to find out the root cause of the Spreading Fake News all around the Country via social Media Platform WhatsApp.

A delegation of WhatsApp officials along with the company’s global policy head Christine Turner with Daniels will visit India to meet with Government Officials at Prime Minister’s Office and the ministry of electronics and information technology (MeitY).

It is reported that the delegation will be arriving on 24th of October, Wednesday.

During the Visit, CEO Chris Daniels is expected to meet the designated authorities on wide range of issues but the main focus would be rather on the data encryption and data sharing. Government of India has asked WhatsApp to find out ways to catch the origin of fake Messages and news, but things would not be that easy. As because WhatsApp runs on end-to-end Encryption.

Government requested WhatsApp to figure out the way to find alternative to find the solution and stop the unnecessary fake news to spread in a larger audience.

CEO chris daniels with Govenment Officials

Visit in August | Image Courtesy: Digit

Lately Fake news over WhatsApp has been leading to very bad condition of Mob lynching in some parts of the country.

Earlier when CEO Chris Daniels visited India for the First time, he was asked to appoint a grievance officer and set up a corporate entity in India to tackle the wide spreading of Fake news all over the Country. Also government demanded for a system to be developed for tracing the origin of fake News.

On demand Chris appointed a grievance officer to look upon the complains of fake messages all over the country. But data sharing and tracing the origin of the fake messages would not be that easy as mentioned earlier, although Indian Government stating “It’s not a rocket science”.

Continue Reading

Trending